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韓國漢生療養所:小鹿島更生園簡介

Page history last edited by happylosheng@gmail.com 12 years, 9 months ago

   

 

 

韓國漢生療養所:小鹿島更生園簡介

S.K. Jung

IDEA國際協會社會經濟部主席、韓國IDEA分會主席

 

如台灣樂生療養院,小鹿島更生園不僅是韓國唯一的漢生病院,同時也是韓國年長漢生病患的居住所在。為了符合過去日本政府對於漢生病患的隔離、根除政策,小鹿島慈惠醫院—今天的小鹿島更生園創建於在日本強權殖民時期。由於嚴厲的強制隔離政策,1934年的小鹿島慈惠醫院是政府經營,在1930~1940間,其中居住病患由742人增加到6136人。然而,對於漢生病患而言,小鹿島醫院並非治療所,而是隔離所,而漢生病患面臨強制結紮、強制墮胎、人體實驗、強制勞動等違反人權的對待。僅有即為少數的漢聲病患,在治療之後獲得釋放。

 

 

 

1945年在韓國脫離日本統治後,小鹿島醫院病患嘗試反抗院方殘酷的醫療政策,在抗爭的過程中,84名病患遭院方謀殺。他們的經驗,對於隔離醫療政策而言是最大的諷刺。因此,在1963年感染性疾病預防法修法之前,小鹿島的病患一直生活在隔離之中。修法之後,漢生病痊癒者方有機會迴歸社會。為求小鹿島漢生並感染者的經濟獨立,一項於Omado的土地開墾計畫開始了。然而,日本統治期間隔離政策造成社會普遍對於漢生病友的歧視,因此,這些以痊癒的漢生病友並無法如預期迴歸社會,只得居住於安置村(R.V),至於一些無法前往安置村的院民,他們只得繼續待在小鹿島。接著,由於鄰近居民的反對,這項土地開墾計畫最終由政府接手。最後,由於社會歧視與偏見,這些已經接受治療並痊癒的漢生病友,仍無法回到他們原本的社會脈絡當中,而必須繼續居住於小鹿島醫院。小鹿島醫院,成為了他們的家。

 

 

 

小鹿島醫院位於小鹿島中央,漢生病友的聚落澤由從島的中央到左方一直延伸至後方,附近並設有福利中心、基督教會與天主教堂對於韓國漢生病友而言,這個具有90年歷史的地方已由殘酷醫療所轉變為他們的家園。小鹿島是韓國的一部分,韓國政府認同漢生並友對於小鹿島的家園情感,並認可漢生病友在小鹿島的居住權力,且提供他們必要的醫療與福利。

 

 

 

然而,從1940年到現在20091月,小鹿島醫院的漢生病患人數已由6254人銳減為613人,且為平均年齡73歲的老年人口。因此,韓國政府正在規劃小鹿島未來經營方向。人口銳減問題之外,韓國政府與社會大眾認知漢生病友於小鹿島續住權力的重要性,因此不大可能強制小鹿島居民搬走。

 

 

 

控告日本政府強制隔離政策的官司始於2004年,同時,國家人權委員會已於2005年提出漢生病患實際情況調查報告,而在漢生病友要求下,韓國政府已進行漢生病患受傷害調查,而強制隔離政策受害者賠償法已經在建立。當中最重要的是,法案將記錄漢生病患人權侵害的事實,而未來小鹿島也將成立漢生病人權紀念館,這對我們的後代還說極具有教育意義,病教導我們的後代記住、珍惜漢生病患的經驗。

 

 

 

 

The formation of home for people affected by HD in Korea

 

                                                                          

 President for Socio-economic Development , IDEA International

                                                        & President of IDEA Korea

 

 

 

 

Like Taiwan's Lo Sheng Sanatorium, the Sorok Island National Hospital is Korea's only Hansen's Disease hospital and is also the place of residence for the elderly affected by Hansen's disease (HD). During the Japanese forced occupation in Korea, for the first time, the Sorok Island charity medical center (Current Sorok National Hospital) was originally established in accordance with the Japanese policy to eradicate HD and began to isolate those with  HD. Sorok Island Charity Hospital became a government run hospital in 1934, but this was due to the result of strict forced isolation policies and the population of 742 those affected by HD in 1930 increased to 6136 by 1940. However, Sorok Hospital was not established for the purpose of treatment but this was rather to isolate people with HD, and their rights regarding forced sterilization, forced abortion, human body experiment and forced labor were not protected and the number of those with HD discharged from the hospital after treatment was extremely rare.

 

 

 

 

 

In 1945, after the liberation from Japan, the patients on the island tried to resolve the issue of their cruel treatment but 84 patients were murdered by the staffs in the middle of struggle between the staffs in the hospital. They were only a scape goat. As a result, they have kept isolated until the Infectious Disease Prevention Law was amended in 1963. After the law was amended, it was possible for cured persons to return to society, and as the economic independence program of those affected by HD on Sorok Island, a land reclamation project in Omado was initiated. However, the prejudice made by the Japanese occupation was even stronger and as a result, ex-patients were not able to live in the general society but they had to live in resettlement villages (R.V), and those who could not go to the R.V had no choice but to remain on Sorok Island. Furthermore, due to opposition against the neighboring people, the land reclamation program ended up being taken over by the government. Ultimately, because of discrimination and prejudice, those who were medically cured of the disease could not return to their home and had to stay in the Sorok Island hospital. So Sorok Island became their home.

 

 

 

 

 

The hospital at the centre of Sorok Island is flanked by the villages for people affected by HD towards the left and the rear, and a welfare center, church and cathedral are nearby. While this place is a part of Korea, it has been a place for those affected by HD nearly for 90 years due to their cruel treatment and has become a home for them. This was recognized by the Korean government which gave them the right to residence and supported them with welfare and medical treatment.

 

 

 

 

 

However, the population of 6254 of those affected by HD in 1940 sharply decreased to 613 by January, 2009 and with the aging population, whose average age is 73, the government is deliberating how to operate the island in the future. Despite the decreasing number of those affected by HD, it is still recognized their right to residence on the island is important as ever and because of the sympathy from the government, Sorok Island Hospital and by the general society, forced movement off the island seems unlikely. Impact on lawsuit for forced segregation against Japanese government starting in 2004and a 2005 research report by the National Human Rights Commission on the actual condition of those affected by HD, and with the requests of those affected by HD, there was an investigation of damages against those affected by HD from the government, and a law was established to compensate for those victims. In particular, the human rights violations against those affected by HD will be written in the law as a lesson for future generations, and memorial hall also will be built in Sorok Island. So it can become educational for future generations to cherish the memory of those affected by HD.

 

 

 

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