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跨國申遺新趨勢

Page history last edited by happylosheng@gmail.com 13 years, 2 months ago

世界遺產名單上的跨界和跨國串聯資產

西村幸夫

東京大學教授、國際文化紀念物與歷史場所委員會前副會長

 

1.跨界和跨國資產的概念

    20092月,有10處文化資產、10處自然資產及1處複合性的資產在世界遺產名單上。這份名單上所登錄的資產詳見下表一。

在上述資產裡有兩個類型,跨界和跨國串聯資產。跨界資產的解釋為,當資產所在的領土是涉及所有緊鄰邊界的締約國(在20081月版本《世界遺產執行運作指導方針》中的134條,以下簡稱「運作指導方針」),而串聯資產是包含所有相關連的組成部分,因為它們屬於:

         a) 相同的歷史文化群體

         b) 具獨特地理區域的同類型資產

         c) 同一地質、地貌形成,同一生物地理區域,或同一生態系統類型(運作指導方針第137條)

而串聯提名可能發生在兩者之一

a) 在領土上的單一締約國;或是

b) 在領土內的不同締約國,不需要是鄰近的,需得到所有關於跨國串聯資產的締約國的贊同提名(運作指導方針第138條)

跨國家的資產概念出現在1932年的美國和加拿大邊界,Waterton Lakes National Park(亞伯達省,加拿大)和Glacier National Park(蒙大拿州,美國)成為世界第一個國際和平公園,於1995年登入世界文化遺產名單,名為Waterton Glacier International Peace Park

第一個更早於Waterton Glacier International Peace Park的跨界登錄,是位在阿拉斯加邊界的Kuane/Wrangell-St Elias/Glacier Bay/Tatshenshini-Alsek。美國和加拿大於1979年登錄,並於1992年和1994年擴大登錄。這是兩個締約國的聯合提名,並由UNESCO推薦,因為這完成提名的過程是和平與共同合作的象徵

    跨界資產對於自然保存與和平,是1929年經濟大蕭條之後國際努力的成果。目前在113個國家裡有超過170處的跨界國家公園和保護區,其中的11處列入世界遺產。

2. 跨界和跨國串聯資產登錄世界遺產

    相較於自然提名,國際特有的文化提名發展較晚,可被理解的原因是在於國家特性與/或國家自尊。

    儘管在名單上的自然資產被登錄為跨界資產,但大多數在相同歷史文化群體種類下的文化資產,則登錄為跨國串聯資產。

第一個的文化登錄是在阿根廷和巴西的Jesuit Missions。雖然這些Missions有相同的歷史背景,提名卻是分別由每個締約國提交,最終的登錄是1983年(巴西)和1984年(阿根廷)。

接下來是較晚加入原有國家串聯資產的第二個締約國之案例。在列入名單的資產中,可以看見資產同樣被擴充的情形,例如比利時與法國的鐘樓,與英國和德國邊境的羅馬帝國。前者,32處比利時鐘樓最初由比利時提報,而後來的23處在法國的鐘樓和1處在比利時的鐘樓則共同包含在原有登錄的擴充部分;而後者,原是由英國於1987年提報登錄Hadrian’s Wall,至2005年則將德國境內550公里長的Roman Limes包含在名單裡成為1987年提名的擴充,並被更名登錄為Frontiers of the Roman Empire,而2008年資產再被擴充,包含蘇格蘭由Emperor Antonius Pius 所建的60公里長的Antonine Wall

最獨特的文化提名是Struve Geodetic Arc10個締約國在同一時間提出,即白俄羅斯、愛沙尼亞、芬蘭、拉脫維亞、立陶宛、摩爾多瓦共和國、挪威、俄羅斯聯邦、瑞典、烏克蘭。總長2,820公里的測量點,是19世紀早期為精確測量地球形狀所設置,這是一項地球科學史的證據,也是國際共同合作研究的象徵。

2004年登錄的Muskauer Park/Park Muzakowski是典型的跨界資產。這座大型的景觀公園在19世界早期由單一個人所創立,現在則分為德國和波蘭兩個不同的國家。這兩個締約國用兩個名字德國的和波蘭的,共同提報這座特殊景觀公園。

3.相同的歷史文化群體分別提報的案例

    有一些遺憾的案例是每個締約國提報自己的文化資產時,可能是屬於「相同的歷史文化群體」或是「具獨特地理區域的同類型資產」的種類。(運作指導方針第137

    Route of Santiago de Compostela(聖地牙哥之路)是典型的案例,屬於西班牙的部份在1993年被登錄於名單上。這條路徑一直是朝聖者通往Santiago de Compostela的必經之路,這座城市在1985年登錄為世界遺產。資產包含從法國邊境至朝聖地的這條綿長路徑上的1,800處歷史建築,與相關的文化景觀。在遺跡評估的過程中,ICOMOS建議將資產盡可能延伸至西班牙之外。然而在這條路徑的法國部份,則另於1998年被登錄在名單上,在Routes of Santiago de Compostela in France名稱下只有69處個別單獨的歷史建物,而在沿路上卻有超過800處可能的遺跡。這是因為從中世紀結束以來,沿著這條路徑上的每個國家有著不同的歷史發展程度。

另一個案例是Koguryo Kingdom高句麗王城文化資產Complex of Koburyo Tombs高句麗墓葬群遲至2004年才做登錄,是朝鮮民主主義人民共和國第一個和唯一(至20092月)登錄於世界文化遺產名單上的資產,當時中國已將Capital Cities and Tombs of the Ancient Koguryo Kingdom王陵及貴族墓葬群提出,於同年被登錄於名單上。

    20086月,柬埔寨的Temple of Preah Vihear被登錄於名單上,卻使泰柬邊界政治和軍事的緊張局勢升高,因為神廟坐落在邊境的懸崖上,且只能從泰國的領土進入。這座大型神廟延伸的建築群超越了邊界,而邊界的劃定還未得到明確的解決。Temple of Preah Vihear能夠扮演著一個重要的調解或是兩方文化合作的角色,但事實上,卻在兩個締約國之間製造了另一個更令人遺憾的爭奪。

    不受歡迎的競爭或是缺乏相互的協調,甚至可在自然遺產上看見,例如阿根廷登錄於1984年的Iguazú National Park,和巴西登錄於1986Iguaçu National Park,兩者國家公園都是世界最大的和最令人敬畏的瀑布,卻是分別不同的提報與登錄。

    跨界和跨國串聯資產登錄於名單上,是國際努力保護共同遺產的象徵,但是我們還在半路上,仍須達成最後的目標。

 

 

 

登錄名稱

共同申報國家

登錄項目(Criterion/criteria)

登錄年分

(Year of inscription)

1

克盧恩/蘭格爾聖伊萊亞斯/冰川灣/塔琴希尼阿爾塞克

Kuane/Wrangell-StElias/Glacier Bay/Tatshenshini-Alsek

加拿大與美國

Canada, USA

N(vii),(viii),(ix),(x)

1979, extension in  1992, 1994

2

寧巴山自然保護區

Mount Mimba Strict Nature Reserve

象牙海岸Côte dIvoire, Ivory Coast Guinea

N(ix),(x)

1981(Guinea), 1982(Côte d’Ivoire)

3

莫西奧圖尼亞瀑布/維多利亞瀑布Mosi-oa-Tunya/Victoria Falls

尚比亞與辛巴威

Zambia, Zimbabwe

N(vii),(viii)

1989

4

塔拉曼加地區阿密斯德保護區/ 阿密斯德國家公園

Talamanca Range-La Amistad Reserves/La Amistad National Park

哥斯大黎加與巴拿馬

Costa Rica, Panama

N(vii),(viii),(ix),(x)

1983(Costa Rica)

1990(Panama)

5

別洛韋日自然保護區與比亞沃韋扎森林

BelovezhskayaPushcha/Biatowieża Forest

白俄羅斯與波蘭

Belarus, Poland

N(vii)

1979(Poland)

1992(Belarus)

6

瓦特頓冰河國際和平公園

Waterton Glacier International Peace Park

加拿大與美國

Canada, USA

N(vii),(ix)

1995

7

阿吉特勒克石灰岩洞

Caves of Aggtelek Karst and Slovak Karst

匈牙利與斯洛伐克

Hungry, Slovakia

N(viii)

1995

2000(extension)

8

庇里牛斯山佩爾杜山

Pyrénées – Mont Perdu

法國與西班牙

France, Spain

C(iii),(iv),(v),N(vii),(viii)

1997

1999(extension)

9

烏布蘇盆地Uvs Nuur Basin

蒙古國與俄羅斯

Mongolia, Russia

N(ix),(x)

2003

10

克瓦爾肯群島/高海岸

High Coast/Kvarken Archipelago

芬蘭與瑞典

Finland, Sweden

N(viii)

2000(Sweden), 2006(Finland)

11

喀爾巴阡山脈原始山毛森林

Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians

斯洛伐克與烏克蘭

Slovakia, Ukraine

N(ix)

2007

12

阿根廷的聖伊格納西奧米尼、聖安娜、羅雷托和聖母瑪利亞艾爾馬約爾村遺跡以及巴西的聖米格爾杜斯米索納斯遺跡

Jesuit Missions of the Guaranis: San Ignacio Mini, Santa Ana, Nuestra Señora de Loreto and Santa Maria Mayor (Argentina), Ruins of Sao Miguel das Missoes (Brazil)

阿根廷與巴西

Argentina, Brazil

C(iv)

1983(Brazil)

1984(Argentina)

13

羅馬古城區/梵諦岡/聖保羅大教堂

Historic Centre of Rome, the Properties of the Holy See in that City Enjoying Extraterritorial Rights and San Paolo Fuori le Mura

義大利與梵蒂岡

Italy, Holy See

C(i),(ii),(iii),(iv),(vi)

1980(Italy)

1990(Holy See)

14

庫羅尼安海峽

Curonian Spit

立陶宛與俄羅斯Lithuania, Russia

C(v)

2000

15

費爾特湖/新錫德爾湖人文景觀

Fertö/Neusiedlersee Cultural Landscape

奧地利與匈牙利

Austria, Hungary

C(v)

2001

16

穆斯考爾公園 / 穆沙可斯基公園

Muskauer Park/Park Muzakowski

德國與波蘭

Germany, Poland

C(i),(iv)

2004

17

羅馬帝國長城

Frontiers of the Roman Empire

英國與德國

UK, Germany

C(ii),(iii),(iv)

1987(UK)

2005(Germany)

2008(UK)

18

比利時與法國的鐘樓

Belfries of Belgium and France

比利時與法國

Belgium, France

C(ii),(iv)

1999(Belgium)

2005(France, Belgium)

19

斯特魯維地理探測弧線

Struve Geodetic Arc

白俄羅斯、愛沙尼亞、芬蘭、拉脫維亞、立陶宛、摩爾多瓦、挪威、俄羅斯、瑞典、烏克蘭

Belarus, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Norway, Russia, Sweden,  Ukraine

C(ii),(iv),(vi)

2005

20

甘比亞石圈

Stone Circles of Senegambia

甘比亞與塞內加爾

Gambia, Senegal

C(i),(iii)

2006

21

阿爾布拉伯爾尼納文化景觀中的雷塔恩鐵路

Rhaetian Railway in the Albura/Bernina Lanscapes

義大利與瑞士

Italy, Switzerland

C(ii),(iv)

2008

 

西村幸夫簡介

 

 

西村幸夫於東京大學都市工程學系取得學士、碩士與博士學位,目前任教於東京大學,教授都市規劃、都市設計與都市保存計畫等科目。曾擔任日本以及其他亞洲城市與鄉鎮之歷史保存計畫顧問,在臺灣擔任文建會首席顧問,並為國際紀念與遺址協會(International Council on Monuments and Sites, ICOMOS) 前副秘書長、亞洲都市計畫大學研究所聯盟理事(Asian Planning Schools Association, APSA)、聯合國教科文組織(UNESCO)世界遺産監修委員。出版過八本著作,其中《都市保存與都市設計》 (1997) 以及《都市保存規劃》 (2007) 曾獲獎肯定,並擔任九十本書籍之共同作者或編輯。

 

 

Transboundary Properties and Serial Transnational Properties

in the World Heritage List

 

 Taipei, 6 and 7 March 2009

 

 

 

 

Yukio Nishimura

Professor of University of Tokyo and former Vice President of ICOMOS

 

 

 

1.       Idea of Transboundary and Transnational Properties

As of February 2009, there are 10 cultural, 10 natural and 1 mixed properties in the World Heriage List.  The list of all the inscribed properties is shown in the Table 1 below.

 

There are two types of such properties; transboundary and serial transnational ones.  Transboundary property is defined as properties “on the territory of all concerned State Parties having adjacent borders” (section 134 of the Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention, January 2008 version, hereafter referred as the ‘Operational Guidelines’), whereas serial property as one which “will include component parts related because they belong to:

a) the same historico-cultural group:

b) the same type of property which is characteristic of the geographical zone:

c) the same geological, geomorphological formation, the same biogeographic province, or the same ecosystem type.”(section 137 of the Operational Guidelines) 

 

And the serial nomination “may occur either

a) on the territory of single State Party; or

b) within the territory of different State Parties, which need not be contiguous and is nominated with the consent of all State Parties concerned (serial transnational property.”(section 138 of the Operational Guidelines) 

 

Idea of such property that covers more than one country occurred in 1932 at the border between United States and Canada, when Waterton Lakes National Park (Alberta, Canada) and Glacier National Park (Montana, USA) formed the world’s first International Peace Park, called Waterton Glacier International Peace Park, which was eventually inscribed in the World Heritage List in 1995.

 

The first transboundary inscription was much earlier than the Waterton Glacier International Peace Park.  It was Kuane/Wrangell-St Elias/Glacier Bay/Tatshenshini-Alsek on the border of Alaska, USA and Canada inscribed in 1979 and extended in 1992 and 1994.  This was a joint nomination of the two State Parties, which is recommended by the UNESCO because it symbolizes the peace and international collaboration through nomination processes.

 

Transboundary properties are, therefore the outcome of international efforts for nature conservation and peace just after the Great Depression in 1929.  At present, there are more than 170 transboundary national parks and reserves in 113 countries, out of which 11 are in the World Heritage List.

 

 

2.       Transboundary and Serial Transnational Properties inscribed in the World Heritage List

Compare with the natural nominations, cultural nominations with international nature started later, because of the understandable reason of national identity and/or national pride.

 

While all the natural properties are inscribed in the List as transboundary properties, majority of the cultural properties are inscribed as serial transnational properties under the category of the same historico-cultural group.

 

The first cultural inscription was Jesuit Missions in Argentina and Brazil.  Although these missions were the same historical background, nomination was submitted separately by each State Party, and eventual inscription in 1983 (Brazil) and in 1984 (Argentina).

 

 

This is a case that second State Party later joined the original serial national property.  The same extensions were seen in the listed properties such as Belfries of Belgium and France, and Frontiers of the Roman Empire of UK and Germany.  The former; 32 Belgian belfries were initially nominated by Belgium then later 23 belfries in France and one belfry in Belgium were jointly included as an extension of the original inscription, while the latter; original inscription by UK under the title of Hadrian’s Wall in 1987 was renamed as Frontiers of the Roman Empire in 2005 when 550 km stretches of German party of Roman Limes was included in the List as an extension of the 1987 inscription, and again in 2008 the property was extended to include Scottish 60-km Antonine Wall built by Emperor Antonius Pius.

 

 

Most unique cultural nomination was Struve Geodetic Arc proposed by ten State Party at the same time, namely Belarus, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Republic of Moldova, Norway, Russian Federation, Sweden and Ukraine.   This is a 2,820 km of survey points, that is, testimony of earth science history in the early 19th century to measure the accurate shape of the globe.  This was also a symbol of international collaboration.

 

 

Muskauer Park/Park Muzakowski inscribed in 2004 may be the typical transboundary property.  This is a large landscape park created by a single person in early 19th century, now divided into to different countries, Germany and Poland.   The two State Parties jointly nominated this exceptional landscape park by using two names, German and Polish.

 

 

3.        Examples of separate nominations of the same historico-cultural group

There are some unfortunate cases that each State Party nominated her own cultural property, which may fall into the category of “the same historico-cultural group” or “the same type of property which is characteristic of the geographical zone.” (section 137 of the Operational Guidelines)

 

Classic case was the Route of Santiago de Compostela, whose Spanish part was inscribed in the List in 1993.  The route was and still is taken by the pilgrims to Santiago de Compostela, another World Heritage City inscribed in 1985.  The property comprises uninterrupted stretches of the route and related cultural landscape from the border of France to the pilgrimage site with some 1,800 historic buildings.   In the process of site evaluation, ICOMOS hinted possible extension of the property outside Spain.  However, French part of the route was separately inscribed in the List in 1998 under the title of Routes of Santiago de Compostela in France, which is composed of only 69 separated individual historic structures out of 800 possible site along the route in France.  This is because history an degree of the development along the route has been different from each country since the end of medieval era.  

 

 

Another example is the cultural heritage of Koguryo Kingdom.  The Complex of Koburyo Tombs, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea’s first and only (as of February 2009) inscription in the World Heritage List was delayed until 2004,when China was ready to put Capital Cities and Tombs of the Ancient Koguryo Kingdom forward, which was inscribed in the List in the same year.

 

    In June 2008, Temple of Preah Vihear, Cambodia, was inscribed in the List, which heightened a certain political and military tension between Thailand and Cambodia on the Thai-Cambodian border, because the Temple located on the cliff of the border and it is only accessible from Thai territory.  Large Temple compound extends beyond the border whose exact demarcation is not yet settled.  Temple of Preah Vihear could play a great role for reconciliation or bi-lateral cultural cooperation, but in reality, it created yet another unfortunate dispute between two State Parties.

 

    This unwelcome rivalry or lack of mutual coordination can be seen even in natural heritage, such as Iguazú National Park, Argentina inscribed in 1984 and Iguaçu National Park, Brazil in 1986.  Both National Parks share the world’s largest and the most impressive waterfalls but nominated and inscribed in separately.

 

 

    Transboundary and serial transnational property inscription in the List symbolizes the international efforts to safeguard our common heritage, but we are still in the middle of the road to the final goal to achieve.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table  Transboudary and Serial Transnational Properties inscribed in the World Heritage List

 

 

Name of the property

State Parties

Criterion/criteria

Year of inscription

1

Kuane/Wrangell-St Elias/

Glacier Bay/Tatshenshini-Alsek

Canada, USA

N(vii),(viii),(ix),(x)

1979, extension in  1992, 1994

2

Mount Mimba Strict Nature Reserve

Côte d’Ivoire, Guinea

N(ix),(x)

1981(Guinea), 1982(Côte d’Ivoire)

3

Mosi-oa-Tunya/Victoria Falls

Zambia, Zimbabwe

N(vii),(viii)

1989

4

Talamanca Range-La Amistad Reserves/La Amistad National Park

Costa Rica, Panama

N(vii),(viii),(ix),(x)

1983(Costa Rica)

1990(Panama)

5

Belovezhskaya Pushcha/Biatowieża Forest

Belarus, Poland

N(vii)

1979(Poland)

1992(Belarus)

6

Waterton Glacier International Peace Park

Canada, USA

N(vii),(ix)

1995

7

Caves of Aggtelek Karst and Slovak Karst

Hungry, Slovakia

N(viii)

1995

2000(extension)

8

Pyrénées – Mont Perdu

France, Spain

C(iii),(iv),(v),

N(vii),(viii)

1997

1999(extension)

9

Uvs Nuur Basin

Mongolia, Russia

N(ix),(x)

2003

10

High Coast/Kvarken Archipelago

Finland, Sweden

N(viii)

2000(Sweden), 2006(Finland)

11

Primval Beech Forests of the Carpathians

Slovakia, Ukraine

N(ix)

2007

12

Jesuit Missions of the Guaranis: San Ignacio Mini, Santa Ana, Nuestra Señora de Loreto and Santa Maria Mayor (Argentina), Ruins of Sao Miguel das Missoes (Brazil)

Argentina, Brazil

C(iv)

1983(Brazil)

1984(Argentina)

13

Historic Centre of Rome, the Properties of the Holy See in that City Enjoying Extraterritorial Rights and San Paolo Fuori le Mura

Italy, Holy See

C(i),(ii),(iii),(iv),

(vi)

1980(Italy)

1990(Holy See)

14

Curonian Spit

Lithuania, Russia

C(v)

2000

15

Fertö/Neusiedlersee Cultural Landscape

Austria, Hungary

C(v)

2001

16

Muskauer Park/Park Muzakowski

Germany, Poland

C(i),(iv)

2004

17

Frontiers of the Roman Empire

UK, Germany

C(ii),(iii),(iv)

1987(UK)

2005(Germany)

2008(UK)

18

Belfries of Belgium and France

Belgium, France

C(ii),(iv)

1999(Belgium)

2005(France, Belgium)

19

Struve Geodetic Arc

Belarus, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Norway, Russia, Sweden,  Ukraine

C(ii),(iv),(vi)

2005

20

Stone Circles of Senegambia

Gambia, Senegal

C(i),(iii)

2006

21

Rhaetian Railway in the Albura/Bernina Landscapes

Italy, Switzerland

C(ii),(iv)

2008

 

About Yukio NISHIMURA

Trained as physical planner at the Department of Urban Engineering,

University of Tokyo, where he got BA, MA and D Eng. in planning, Professor

Yukio Nishimura teaches urban planning, urban design and urban conservation

planning at the Univ. of Tokyo, his alma mater. Majoring in conservation

planning, he has also been advising a number of historic cities and towns

for their conservation plans throughout Japan as well as some Asian

countries, such as Taiwan, where he is chief honorary advisor to the Council

for Cultural Affairs. He also served s Vice President of the International

Council on Monuments and Sites, ICOMOS, whose functions include evaluation

of World Cultural Heritage nominations as a consultative body of UNESCO. He

is also Executive Committee member of Asian Planning Schools Association,

APSA. He is the author of two award-wining books; Urban Conservation and

Urban Design(1997), and Urban Conservation Planning(2004) (both Japanese)

and six other books and contributed more than 90 books as coauthor or

editor.

 

 

 

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