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挪威漢生博物館簡介

Page history last edited by happylosheng@gmail.com 12 years, 9 months ago

挪威柏根漢生博物館     

漢生醫師 (1841-1912)(圖片來源:柏根市博物館網站http://www.bymuseet.no/?vis=80&spr=en

 

 

 

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挪威痲瘋病的歷史是世界疾病史的一部分,在西元18501900年間柏根(Bergen)對痲瘋病來說是個非常重要的城市,當時有三間收容痲瘋病患者的醫院,聖喬治醫院(St. George’s Hospital)即是其中一間,以及全歐洲最大的痲瘋病研究中心。

 

 

柏根漢生博物館原為聖喬治醫院(St. George’s Hospital),是柏根成立最久的漢生病醫院,距成立至今約三百多年,自中世紀以來收留痲瘋病人,聖喬治醫院的房間非常小,大約只有兩公尺乘以兩公尺的大小,在收容過多病患的時候,一個房間必須住上二至三人,公共空間像廚房和客廳倒是非常寬敞。過去漢生病患被視為不乾淨而被隔離,但是在挪威,許多病患是與其所在的社區生活在一起的。而聖喬治醫院的所在位置更顯示了對漢生病患們的關注,醫院雖位於柏根的郊區,四周均是空地與牧場,但還是位於柏根市鎮範圍內,沿著主要街道即可到達城鎮中心,如此巧妙的位置與路線的安排,不但讓人們有機會捐助醫院,對害怕漢生病的人來說,是個最低程度的直接接觸方式。

 

 

 

1873年挪威醫生漢生先生(Dr. Armauer Hansen)發現導致痲瘋病的痲瘋桿菌,他與許多當時在聖喬治醫院的醫生一起致力治療漢生病,為了紀念他的貢獻,痲瘋病也被稱為漢生病。在漢生醫師之前,聖喬治醫院裡有位丹尼爾醫師(Daniel Cornelius Danielssen)也致力於研究痲瘋病,丹尼爾醫師於1839年來到聖喬治醫院,在這之前,痲瘋病患僅接受極少的醫療照護,在丹尼爾擔任主任醫師的任內,他成立了兩間新的痲瘋病醫院,分別是The Foundation for Care for Leprous No.1the Lungegård Hospital,在這些新醫院的加入下,柏根漸漸地成為國際痲瘋病的研究中心。

 

 

 

年輕醫師漢生在1868年回到他的故鄉柏根聖喬治醫院與丹尼爾共事,兩位醫師對痲瘋病的看法分歧,丹尼爾認為漢生病是遺傳性血液疾病,而漢生則相信是其他原因所造成。後來漢生醫師發現痲瘋病是由痲瘋桿菌所造成,且是一種會經由接觸傳染的疾病,他與許多當時在聖喬治醫院的醫生一起致力治療漢生病,為了紀念他的貢獻,便以他的姓氏漢生作為這個疾病的名稱,因此痲瘋病也被稱為漢生病。

 

 

 

在醫師們的努力下,挪威的漢生病患漸漸地減少,到了二十世紀初幾乎絕跡,但是聖喬治醫院被保留了下來,漢生醫師的辦公室也依然存在,皆被改為漢生博物館,它們不僅僅紀念著數以千計遭受病痛折磨的過去,對於挪威對漢生病的研究與努力,也是個極具意義的呈現場域。醫師辦公室與聖喬治醫院兩棟建築物成為紀念館的緣由在挪威醫療史上或許快被遺忘,但是兩位醫師卻不曾被人們所遺忘,因為他們對漢生病的研究貢獻始終是受到國際間的感念與重視。

 

 

 

柏根所藏之痲瘋病相關檔案文獻目前屬於聯合國教科文組織所進行之「世界共同記憶」(Memory of the World)計畫中的一部分,可惜的是聖喬治醫院在1702年發生火災,目前能收集到的資料多是大火之後留下,在火災發生之前僅剩少許的文獻供大家想像1702年以前的醫院情景。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

St Jørgen's Hospital



St Jørgen's Hospital.

St Jørgen’s Hospital was a leprosy hospital with a history that goes back to the Middle Ages. The hospital was most likely started by the nearby Nonneseter Convent. The hospital received testamentary gifts in 1411, but we do not know how much older the hospital might be. The last two patients at St Jørgen’s Hospital both died in 1946, after which it ceased to exist as a health institution. Today the Leprosy Museum is found in the 300 years old buildings.

 
St Jørgen's Hospital

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The common rooms were spacious, but...


...the patients' rooms were small. 2x2 meters was enough for two patients.


By the Lords altar. Pictures by Histos.

 

St Jørgen’s Hospital was one of several leprosy hospitals in Bergen. Leprosy was wide spread and much feared, and Western Norway was badly struck by the disease in the 19th century.

Leprosy is a very old disease, known among many other sources from the Bible. The Mosaic Law addresses the problem, and shows how to identify the illness, as well as how to protect oneself against it. Also the story about Jesus who healed the leper is well-known. In Marc 1:40-45, the story is told like this:

“Now a leper came to Him, imploring Him, kneeling down to Him and saying to Him, ‘If You are willing, You can make me clean.’ Then Jesus, moved with compassion, stretched out His hand and touched him, and said to him, ‘I am willing; be cleansed’. As soon as He had spoken, immediately the leprosy left him, and he was cleansed. And He strictly warned him and sent him away at once, and said to him, ‘See that you say nothing to anyone; but go your way, show yourself to the priest, and offer for your cleansing those things which Moses commanded, as a testimony to them.’ However, he went out and began to proclaim it freely, and to spread the matter, so that Jesus could no longer openly enter the city, but was outside in deserted places; and they came to Him from every direction.”

Leprosy has to a large extent been tied to religion in the Christian European culture. The patients have been regarded as unclean, and were often forced into isolation. However, in Norway many people with the disease lived integrated in their communities up until the 19th century.
St Jørgen’s Hospital had, as did many similar European hospitals, a church in an adjacent building. The patients must have given the stories in the Bible a lot of thought while reading the words above the altar:

By the Lord’s Altar, I come to collect
The Sacrifice for my Sins, His Blood
To heal the Leprosy In my Body and Soul.

The sick often lived many years of their lives at St Jørgen’s Hospital. The bedrooms were small, approximately 2 by 2 metres. At times with many patients living in the hospital, two or three people shared the small room. The kitchen and the living rooms, however, were spacious.

We know a lot about the hospital and its buildings after the great fire in 1702. Prior to this, little documentation exists, and we have few leads to help us imagine what the hospital looked like. Probably the hospital comprised a number of small wooden buildings for the sick. Administration and staff had their own houses, and most likely the church was the largest and most beautiful building.

As interesting as the architecture and functions of the hospital, is its location. St Jørgen’s Hospital was found on the outskirts of Bergen. The town was built around the bay, Vågen, and when people approached the hospital, they found it surrounded by open fields and pastures. Even though the hospital was situated outside the urban area, it was still within the town’s gates, along a main street into the town. With this arrangement passers-by had the opportunity to give alms to the hospital, with a minimum of direct contact with the bearers of the frightening and horrible disease.

In 1839, Daniel Cornelius Danielssen (1815-1894) came to work as a physician at St Jørgen’s Hospital, where the patients had received very little medical care in the past. Danielssen and Boeck’s Monografy Om Spedalskhed (About Leprosy) from 1847 marks a starting point for the modern leprosy research.

With two new hospitals - The Foundation for Care for Leprous No.1 and the Lungegård Hospital – Bergen gradually became an international centre for leprosy research. Both hospitals were established during Danielssen’s time as chief physician for leprosy in Bergen.

The young doctor Gerhard Henrik Armauer Hansen (1841-1912) came to work with Danielssen in 1868. The two doctors soon disagreed professionally. In Danielssen’s opinion leprosy was a hereditary blood disease, whereas Armauer Hansen believed it to be something different. The younger man had a theory that leprosy was caused by a germ. With modern microscopes and modern methods of research, he did in time verify the theory that leprosy was a contagious disease. Armauer Hansen earned great international recognition for his discoveries, and he has even become the most depicted Norwegian on foreign stamps. Today the disease is known across the world as Hansen’s disease.

Leprosy gradually diminished in Norway, making the disease practically eradicated by the early twentieth century. The Lungegård Hospital was demolished to give room for the railway, but the Foundation for Care for Leprous No.1 is still there. Armauer Hansen’s office is preserved, and is a museum today. Together with St Jørgen’s Hospital, the two buildings serve as monuments over medical history nearly forgotten in Norway. But the two doctors are not forgotten in other parts of the world – their research on the terrible disease is still internationally famous.

 

 

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