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林永隆講稿

Page history last edited by happylosheng@gmail.com 13 years, 3 months ago

 

 

保存馬來西亞雙溪毛糯漢生病院

摘要

 

我們正慶祝獨國家立五十週年,並驕傲過去半世紀政府的成績與建設。然而在雙溪毛糯痲瘋病院卻仍存在著一個隔離的世界,這裡住著一群年邁的痲瘋病患。不幸地,他們呼籲政府保護他們的聚落免於發展的破壞。這裡是他們將近八十年來唯一的家,甚至比我們獨立的時間還久。除了提供庇護,聚落也使他們能獨立生活和幫助他們恢復自尊心。

 

近幾年,這獨特的社區在Klang Valley已經建立了卓越的園藝業。不用說,沒有多少人有興趣了解由於過去社會對於漢生病的污名化這預防聚落八十年的歷史。雙溪毛糯痲瘋病院在馬來西亞歷史醫療、規劃、建築、社會文化方面,佔有非常重要的位置。重現這歷史場所是我們在現代遺產保存上一件令人興奮的事。這像是現代的古老遺蹟,等待著人們去發現與解釋,這隔離的世界如何被規劃、建造、運作,這群人從社會分離後持續建立自己的社會、文化、經濟。

 

1、自給預防的聚落遺產

 

提供痲瘋病患者一個自給的聚落,這個最早的概念在1917年被馬來聯邦州政府所討論。1923年在新加坡舉辦的第五屆熱帶醫療代表大會,在會議上由 Dr EAO Traverse 提出。這個自主社區的概念引入了1898年英國Ebenezer Howard田園城市計劃。在1924-1925年,田園城市的概念被應用規劃雙溪毛糯痲瘋病院。這不只是在理想概念上,依據區域劃分住宅範圍、中央公園、周圍綠帶等,這也是實際地自主控制社區的功能。如今,原始綠帶從原先持續規劃的架構中被完整的開發,成為 Klang Valley 最重要的園藝地區。19261月,一位國際知名的巴西痲瘋病學專家 Dr Souza Araujo 來到馬來西亞,他驚訝於雙溪毛糯痲瘋病院的政策,適當的回應每個個別細節的需求,包括選擇合適於農藝的地方,建造有醫院和治療設施的主要行政建築等。

 

2 多種族生活環境的遺產

 

Harry Miller在《Straits Times Annual Report(1940)這份報告中,說明雙溪毛糯痲瘋病院可能是世界上唯一不同於其他的痲瘋病院。這是一個超過兩千人的小型共和國,有不同的種族-華人、馬來人、印尼人、爪哇人、泰國人、歐亞混血人和零星其他族群的人。這些被法律所隔離一起的男人、女人、小孩形成一個大家庭,有不同的語言、宗教、習俗,卻能生活融洽。雙溪毛糯痲瘋病院可能是馬來西亞最早的城市聚落,代表多種族生活的基礎概念。

 

3特殊的現代次文化

 

雙溪毛糯痲瘋病院的自主環境創造了一個具社會、經濟性的獨特文化,是在二十世紀的一個罕見、特殊的現代次文化案例。它受醫療監督所治理,登記出生、結婚、離婚、死亡。整個聚落以院民工作者制度為基礎,由患者自己管理,每一個患者都有一個社會任務,如教師、護士、警察、農夫等。

 

4著名的痲瘋病研究中心

 

在設立聚落的研究單位後,雙溪毛糯成為世界上一個重要的痲瘋病研究中心。雙溪毛糯研究中心的所有研究發展與成就,紀錄於由Anthony Joshua-Raghavar 所著《Leprosy in Malaysia, Past, Present and Future》(1983)一書。

 

未來發展

 

雙溪毛糯痲瘋病院的建立,成果包含社會政策規劃,結合城市規劃技術與醫療科學,這是一個成功具人性的解決方法。

 

ICOMOS (國際文化紀念物與歷史場所委員會)公布「世界遺產名單,填補空白的一個未來行動計畫」,鼓勵會員國家去認可和登入他們的文化遺產,特別是還未登錄進世界遺產名單和暫時名單者,並發展可信的、具代表性與平衡世界遺產名單的全球策略。毫無疑問的,雙溪毛糯痲瘋病院是尚未在名單上的一個遺產,它是最重要的隔離(預防)聚落型態,可能會藉由UNESCOICOMOS委員被指定,因為痲瘋病預防聚落在二十世紀扮演著獨特且最重要的工作。

 

 

Title: Preserve the Sungai Buloh Leprosy Settlement, Malaysia

 

Abstract

 

IN the spirit of our 50 years of Independence, we rightly celebrate with pride our nation's achievements and contributions of the past half century. 

However, there still exists an isolated world in the Sungai Buloh leprosy settlement where a group of aged leprosy patients lives with "clawed" hands and feet. 
Sadly, they had appealed to the government to protect their settlement from being destroyed in the name of development. This place is their only home for almost 80 years, longer than our years of independence even. Besides providing refuge, the settlement has allowed them to live independently and help them regain self-respect. 



In more recent years, this unique community has also established one of the most remarkable horticulture industries in the Klang Valley.
 Needless to say, not many are keen on knowing the 80-year history of this prophylaxis settlement due to the outdated social stigma of leprosy. 

Unexpectedly, the Sungai Buloh leprosy settlement has marked a very significant stage in Malaysian history in relation to medicine, planning, architecture and social cultural aspects. 

The rediscovery of this historical place is one of the most exciting milestones in our modern heritage and preservation. It is like a modern 'ancient site' that awaits people to uncover and interpret on how an isolated world had been planned, structured and functioned to self-sustain a group of humans, being socially, culturally and economically separated from society.

1 The legacy of self-supporting prophylaxis settlement

The very first idea of providing a self-supporting settlement for leprosy patients was mooted by the Federal Malay State (FMS) Government in 1917. In 1923, the idea was presented at the 5th Biennial Congress of Tropical Medicine held in Singapore, thanks to Dr EAO Traverse. This concept of a self-supporting community can be directly related to the idealistic Garden City principles introduced by Ebenezer Howard in England in 1898.
Between 1924-25, the Garden City idea was used in Sungai Buloh to plan a leprosy settlement. It was not only conceptually perfect in terms of clear zoning among housing areas, central park, surrounding green belt, etc, but it also functioned with practicality to self-support a contained community. Today, the original green belt of the earliest self-sustained planning architecture is fully explored as one of the most important horticulture areas in the Klang Valley.

In January 1926, Dr Souza Araujo, an internationally well-known Brazillian leprologist came to Malaya. He was amazed by the policy of Sungai Buloh leprosy settlement, in which every single detail responded aptly to the needs, including suitable choice of site for agriculture purpose, erection of main administration building with hospital and treatment facilities, etc.

2 The Legacy of multi-racial living environment

Harry Miller, in the Straits Times Annual Report (1940), explained that the Sungai Buloh leprosy settlement was probably the only place of its kind in the world. It was a small republic with a population of over 2,000 from different races -  Chinese, Malays, Indians, Javanese, Thais, Eurasians and a sprinkling of other nationalities. Together they formed a big 'family of men, women and children, with different languages, religions and customs isolated by law, but bound by the common fetter of leprosy, yet living in complete harmony'. The Sungai Buloh leprosy settlement is probably the earliest "modern settlement" in Malaysia that represents the fundamental idea of what multi-racial living is all about.

 

3 Exceptional example of modern sub-culture

The self-supporting environment of the Sungai Buloh leprosy settlement has created a unique culture of social and economic characteristic that can be construed as a rare and exceptional example of modern sub-culture in the 20th century. It was governed by medical superintendents who registered births, marriages, divorces and deaths. The whole settlement was managed by the patients themselves based on an inmate workers system, in which every patient had a social responsibility such as teacher, nurse, police force member, farmer, etc.

4 Renowned famous leprosy research center 

Since its establishment, the settlement's research unit has put Sungai Buloh on the world map as an outstanding leprosy research center. All research developments and achievements of the Sungai Buloh research unit have been recorded in the book Leprosy in Malaysia, Past, Present and Future by Anthony Joshua-Raghavar, 1983.

Future development

The establishing of Sungai Buloh Leprosy Settlement involved genius efforts in organising social policy, combining the art of town planning and medical sciences; its successful outcome is an outstanding solution to humanity.

The ICOMOS (The International Council on Monuments and Sites) publication in “THE WORLD HERITAGE LIST, Filling the Gaps-an Action Plan for the Future” urged state parties to recognized and listed their cultural heritage especially “under-represented properties” in the World Heritage List and Tentative Lists as a contribution to the development of the Global Strategy for a credible, representative and balanced World Heritage List.  Undoubtedly, Sungai Buloh Leprosy Settlement is a type of heritage property that under-represented in the list. It could consider a highlight type of segregation (prophylaxis) settlement that might appreciate by the Unesco and Icomos parties because it portrays one of the most important works of leprosy prophylaxis settlement that very rare and unique in 20th century.

 

About Lim Yong Long

 

 

He was born in Melaka, Malaysia. He completed his Architecture Degree and Master Program in The University of Technology Malaysia, Skudai. Currently, he is continuing his PhD program at The University of Tokyo. During his degree years, he was actively involved in activities organized by the Centre of Study of Malay Built Environment (KALAM). He initiated the effort of introducing Malay traditional architecture to the Chinese community through the media of newspaper. So far, series of KALAM’s measured drawings have been published in Sin Chew Daily. After he submitted his Master at end of 2006, he worked as Research Fellow at The Center for Modern Architecture in Southeast Asia (MASSA) at Taylor’s University College. Within a brief period at MASSA he has helped the center in publishing modern architecture monograph where ‘National Mosque’ has been published and a publication on ’50 years of Public Housing in Kuala Lumpur’ was launched in July 2008. Beside academic activities, one of the main issues that he has initiated advocating is the Sungai Buloh leprosy settlement, which is seriously under threat by development. He has taken pro-active measure by proposing an alternative proposal for the development to the local government. A strategic plan has been suggested to transform the leprosy settlement into a sustainability horticulture settlement. Apart from this, he has successfully helped Selangor Chinese Assembly Hall to secure a conservation grant from Ministry of Cultural, Arts and Heritage to restore its historic building.

 

 

 

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